Shelley Lapkoff, Ph.D.
Surprising Stories Behind the Pledge of Allegiance
To hear Dr. Shelley
Lapkoff's 2008 talk at the Commonwealth Club
of California, click
Speech Program Highlights
Explore the deeper meaning in the Pledge of Allegiance. After this program, you'll never
again say the Pledge the same way!
Discover why the Pledge was
Appreciate why the author chose
the words he did
Understand how and why the
Pledge's wording was changed twice
Learn about the social, economic,
and political forces that shaped the Pledge
Value public education, an
institution many take for granted today.
Most of us have recited the Pledge of Allegiance thousands of
times. Many people say the Pledge almost unconsciously, simply reciting the 31 words by
rote. Some refuse to say the Pledge. Others say it and feel uncomfortable about it.
Shelleys talk can transform peoples experience of the Pledge, providing a more
profound meaning, by fleshing out its historical context and describing why the words were